# Print

## A. Prior to the lesson:

1. Arrange students into groups. Each group needs at least ONE person who has a mobile device.

2. If their phone camera doesn't automatically detect and decode QR codes, ask students to

• Bring these devices into the lesson.

4. Cut them out and place them around your class / school.

## B. The lesson:

1. Give each group a clipboard and a piece of paper so they can write down the decoded questions and their answers to them.

2. Explain to the students that the codes are hidden around the school. Each team will get ONE point for each question they correctly decode and copy down onto their sheet, and a further TWO points if they can then provide the correct answer and write this down underneath the question.

3. Away they go! The winner is the first team to return with the most correct answers in the time available. This could be within a lesson, or during a lunchbreak, or even over several days!

## C. TIPS / OTHER IDEAS

4. A detailed case study in how to set up a successful QR Scavenger Hunt using this tool can be found here.

### Question

1. Plants develop brightly coloured flowers to attract animals. Which process is directly assisted by this adaptation?fertilization
2. What controls the flowering process in long-day plants?Pr is converted by red light to Pfr which acts as an inhibitor of flowering
3. How do mineral ions in the soil move to the root through the soil?Mass flow of water
4. What is a difference between the features of monocotyledons and dicotyledons?Parallel-veined leaves v Net-veined leaves
5. What causes stomata to close?The presence of abscisic acid
6. The lengths of a sample of tiger canines were measured. 68% of the lengths fell within a range between 15 mm and 45 mm. The mean was 30 mm. What is the standard deviation of this sample?15
7. What does a small standard deviation signify?The data is clustered closely to the mean value.
8. The t-test is used to test the statistical significance of a difference. What is that difference?Between the means of two samples
9. What do error bars on graphs show?how variable the data is
10. What happens in crossing over?Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
11. What are homologous chromosomes?Each gene is at the same locus on both chromosomes.
12. What is the probability that the child will have hemophilia?0%girl 50%boy
13. Which enzymes are needed to produce recombinant plasmids to be used in gene transfer?Restriction enzyme (endonuclease) and DNA ligase
14. A parent organism of unknown genotype is mated in a test cross. Half of the offspring have the same phenotype as the parent. What can be concluded from this result?The parent of unknown genotype is heterozygous.
15. What is the difference between the alleles of a gene?their base sequence
16. Which of the following is the cause of sickle-cell anemia?Glutamic acid is replaced by valine.
17. A man of blood group A and a woman of blood group B have a child. If both are heterozygous for the gene, what are the chances of them having a child with blood group B?25%
18. How is hemophilia inherited?sex linked
19. What kind of inheritance does skin colour represent?polygenic
20. A cell in the testis of a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) contains 48 chromosomes. It is about to undergo meiosis. How many molecules of DNA will be present in the nucleus of the sperm cells just after meiosis?24
21. What process Samples cells from the placenta?Chronic villi sampling
22. How can fragments of DNA be separated?gel electrophoresis
23. Why can DNA profiling be used to determine paternity?Half the genes of children are the same as their father’s.
24. Which 2 processes promote variation in a species?meiosis and fertilization
25. What is the set of alleles that an individual possesses?genotype
26. Which phase of cell division is photographed in order to make a karyotype?metaphase
27. Which process is used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?DNA replication
28. If the haploid number of a species is 14, how many chromatids will there be in metaphase I in a dividing diploid cell?56
29. If an organism that is homozygous recessive for a trait is crossed with a heterozygote, what is the chance of getting a homozygous recessive phenotype in the first generation?50%
30. What is placed into the uterus after the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF)?embryos
31. What are the fundamental structural units of eukaryotic chromosomes?nucleosome
32. When do chiasmata form in meiosis?prophase I
33. What conclusions did Mendel make from his experiments?Genes for two different characteristics are inherited separately.
34. In fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) grey body is dominant to black body and normal wings are dominant to vestigial wings. If a heterozygous grey fruit fly is mated with a black-bodied fruit fly, what proportion of the offspring would be black?50%
35. What chemicals are a component of eukaryotic chromosomes?DNA and proteins
36. A small amount of a suspect’s DNA is obtained from a crime scene. What techniques would be used to carry out DNA profiling?PCR and gel electrophoresis
37. The Human Genome Project allowed the first accurate estimates of the number of different genes in the human genome. What was a typical estimate, based on the results of the Human Genome Project?25,000
38. How many autosomes are there in a human sperm?22
39. What type of inheritance pattern determines a character that is controlled by two or more genes?polygenic
40. How are plasmids used in biotechnology?gene transfer
41. What is the cell theory? I Living organisms are composed of cells. II. All cells come from pre-existing cells by mitosis. III. Cells are the smallest units of life.
42. What type of bond exists between water molecules?hydrogen
43. The percentage of thymine in the DNA of an organism is approximately 30%. What is the percentage of guanine?20%
44. What is a structural change of a protein that results in the loss of its biological properties?denaturation
45. How do cells capture the energy released by cell respiration?produce ATP
46. What is the source of the oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis?water in photosystem 2
47. What property of water makes it a good evaporative coolant?High latent heat of evaporation
48. What is the difference between galactose and lactose?Lactose is a disaccharide and galactose is a monosaccharide.
49. Which process produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose?Aerobic respiration
50. green
51. How many molecules of water are required to completely hydrolyse a polypeptide made up of 23 amino acids?22
52. What does a nucleosome consist of ?DNA + histones
53. What are Okazaki fragments?Short sections of DNA formed during DNA replication
54. The sequence of nucleotides in a section of RNA is: GCCAUACGAUCG What is the base sequence of the DNA sense strand?GCCATACGATCG
55. Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell?thylakoid membrane
56. What is produced by the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and used in the Calvin cycle?ATP and NADPH
57. Which base pair is connected by three hydrogen bonds?Cytosine and Guanine
58. Which molecules are found in both DNA and RNA?phosphate, adenine, cytosine, guanine
59. The photosynthetic activity of desert plants is often reduced in the middle of the day. What is the most reasonable explanation for this fact?the stomata close to preserve water and gas exchange decreases
60. The decarboxylation of pyruvate occurs during what stage of Cellular Respiration?link reaction
61. Where does the RNA polymerase bind during the process of transcription?promoter
62. A plant is exposed to increasing light intensity from very dim to bright light, while the carbon dioxide concentration and temperature are kept at an optimum level. What will happen to the rate of oxygen production? it will increase to a max level then level off
63. In some people, hemoglobin always contains the amino acid valine in place of a glutamic acid at one position in the protein. What is the cause of this?A base substitution in the hemoglobin gene
64. What is a function of cellulose in plants?make up cell walls
65. A controlled release of energy, in the form of ATP, from organic compounds in cells is known ascellular respiration
66. What is the reason for Okazaki fragments being formed during DNA replication?To enable replication of the 3′ → 5′ (lagging) strand
67. What is removed during the formation of mature RNA in eukaryotes?introns
68. During glycolysis a hexose sugar is broken down to two pyruvate molecules. What is the correct sequence of stages? (use the words: lysis,oxidation and phosphorylation)Phosphorylation → lysis → oxidation
69. What does the universal nature of the genetic code allow?transfer of genes among species
70. What happens during the formation of Okazaki fragments?DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides in the 5´ → 3´ direction.
71. What is chemiosmosis?Coupling of ATP synthesis to the electron transport and proton movement
72. What chemical reaction is taking place when a dipeptide becomes two amino acids?Hydrolysis
73. What is a polysome?Several ribosomes using a mRNA molecule to synthesize protein at the same time
74. What does oxidation involve?Loss of electrons, loss of hydrogen, or gain of oxygen
75. What happens in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?reduction of carbon dioxide (to form glucose)
76. Which two tissues of a leaf are photosynthetic?Palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll
77. What is a codon?A sequence of nucleotides on mRNA that corresponds to an amino acid
78. What happens as an enzyme becomes denatured?enzyme works slower or not at all
79. What happens during the pathway of glycolysis?glucose is broken down into 2 pytruvates, 2 ATP and 2 NADH
80. What is light energy used for during photosynthesis?to make ATP and NADPH
81. Blood is a water-based transport medium. Which property of water makes it a good transport medium?versatility as a solvent
82. What is replicated by a semi-conservative process?DNA
83. TATCGCACG What are the anticodons of the three tRNA molecules that correspond to this sequence?UAU, CGC and ACG
84. What is the function of the tRNA activating enzyme?It links tRNA to a specific amino acid.
85. What level of protein structure is formed from interactions between the amino acid side groups?tertiary
86. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, what is the last electron acceptor?Oxygen
87. Where are complex carbohydrates made in the chloroplast?stroma
88. Where in the cell does the Calvin cycle take place?in the stroma of the chloroplast
89. What is the distinction between highly repetitive DNA sequences and single-copy genes?The highly repetitive sequences are not transcribed.
90. What principle is necessary to preserve the sequence of DNA during replication?Base pairing is complementary.
91. What happens during translation?Polypeptide synthesis
92. What is the role of NADH + H+ in aerobic cell respiration?To transfer hydrogen to the electron transport chain
93. What happens to glycerate 3-phosphate during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced to triose phosphate.
94. What is the advantage of having a small volume inside the thylakoids of the chloroplast?High proton concentrations are rapidly developed.
95. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur are elements found in living cells. Which is the least common?Sulphur
96. A certain gene in a bacterium codes for a polypeptide that is 120 amino acids long. How many nucleotides are needed in the mRNA to code for this polypeptide?360
97. What enzyme is used in transcription but not in translation?RNA polymerase
98. If mRNA has a codon CAU, what is the corresponding anticodon on the tRNA molecule?GUA
99. What are pyrimidines in DNA?Thymine and Cytosine
100. Which enzyme removes the RNA primer during replication?DNA polymerase I
101. What is the net production of ATP, per molecule of glucose during the fermentation of glucose to lactate?2
102. A red blood cell is 8 μm in diameter. If drawn 100 times larger than its actual size, what diameter will the drawing be in mm?.8mm
103. A cell has cytoplasm, a cell wall, naked DNA and ribosomes. Based on this information, what type of cell could this be?prokaryote(bacteria)
104. What do diffusion and osmosis have in common?they are passive transport
105. If a mitochondrion has a length of 5 µm and a student’s drawing of the mitochondrion is 10 mm, what is the magnification of the drawing?x2000
106. What route is used to export proteins from the cell?Rough endoplasmic reticulum → Golgi apparatus → plasma membrane
107. How can cells in a multicellular organism differentiate?They express some of their genes but not others.
108. What happens during the G2 stage of interphase?Synthesis of proteins
109. What is the sequence of stages during the cell cycle? G1 → S → G2 → mitosis → cytokinesis
110. What does facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane require?pore protein and concentration gradient
111. How do prokaryotic cells divide?binary fission
112. During which phase of the cell cycle do chromosomes duplicate?S
113. What feature do plant cells have but not animal cells?large central vacuole, cell wall
114. Cells in the adrenal gland produce the hormone epinephrine and store it in vesicles. To release epinephrine these vesicles are carried to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. What process is occurring?exocytosis
115. During reproduction in flowering plants an embryo sac is produced, containing one haploid nucleus.This haploid nucleus divides by mitosis three times. What is produced?8 haploid nuclei
116. What does therapeutic cloning involve?Producing embryonic stem cells for medical use
117. In viewing an electron micrograph of a cell, ribosomes, pili and a single circular chromosome are observed. What other structure is likely to be present?plasmid
118. The DNA of a particular cell is damaged, so that the cell continues to divide uncontrollably. What is the possible result?tumour formation
119. What is produced as a result of mitosis?Two cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the original cell

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